Guide on Python, Installation and creating games

Python, also known as interpreter software, is a high-end programming language that is used by computers. It is easily understood and makes each task simple, no matter the complexity. It is a popular and most preferred language to Javascript, C++, Basic, PHP, and Java due to its wide range of benefits.

Accessing python is that easy. All you need is download and install the Python interpreter software. It is unique and quickly understands commands and instructions provided in the python language. You can easily find this software on the internet.

If the device you are using windows, you may have to download the python installers which will probably possess .msi characters at the end and double-click. There is the provision of instructions that you can quickly respond to using the guidelines given and agreeing to terms and conditions and the license terms. You can now complete the installation.

Python Data Structures

A programming language is not complete without the data structures. Python has four inbuilt provisions including list, tuple, set and dictionary, to make the programming tasks easy. They are a useful way of storing and organizing data to be accessed quickly and worked on effectively. Their main aim is to define or give meaning to the relationship between data and the changes and adjustments that would be made.

Data structures are crucial in a programming language as they help the software engineers, developers and data scientists concentrate on the larger picture of solving problems in programming without going into the details.

List

It is an in-built data structure in python that stores a collection of items. You can identify files by their square brackets that hold elements that are separated by a comma. These items in lists are mutable in that; you can make adjustments to their content without having to change their identity.

Lists are made up of several elements that possess varying data. There are cases where there are lists that work as elements. You can make changes easily on a list unlike other forms of data structures that may need more to add data, remove or search.  They hold their data in sequences which makes working on the simple.

In python, lists tend to have many provided methods for manipulating and working with data. These include; adding items to list, removing items, reversing, sorting, inserting, and so on. Let’s have a glimpse of how they work:

Clear () – this means you can remove or delete some or all elements in a list

Count () – getting the exact value or number of the items in a listy

Append () –allows you add details at the end of the list

Copy () – creates a duplicate of the contents in your list

Index () –the index of the items in the catalog are retrieved

Insert () –adding an article in the file using a defined index

Remove () – deleting or eliminating some or all the elements in a list

Extended () – creating another record with the contents of another directory

Reverse () – all the items in the catalog are reversed to create a new list

Pop () – removing and adding elements into a list

Sort () – sorting all the details in a file in a descending or ascending order

Tuple

Tuples are standard sequence type of data that only differs from listing because of the immutable nature. They do not allow adjustments such as deleting, adding or editing any values inside the tuple. It is quite useful if you do not need anyone to manipulate your data.

 Modifying tuples by the parenthesis is impossible, which separates elements using commas. Parenthesis gives meaning to the tuple.  If you need to use tuples, ensure your values are constant, and you may not need to make any adjustments.

Tuples are usually applied when a statement or a user-defined function or element can take up the collection of the values used in the tuple will not change.

For a single item, the tuple should have a specific or optional question after the comma. For instance: singleton tuple= (item 1,) and for the multiple or general elements, the syntax should look similar to this; some tuple= (item 1, item 2, item 3, item 4, and so on).

Python programming allows tuple methods such as:

Tuple () – the list is transformed into a tuple

Max () – the highest value in a tuple

Min () – returning the smallest amount to a tuple

Cmp () – comparing a set of tuples

Len () –determining the length of the tuple

Set

Sets are a collection of unique, unordered items. It only holds datasets that have unique values. However, they do not contain duplicate elements. They are applied when the object in the set is essential than the order or how often it occurs.

You can use sets to determine the membership of different elements as well as eliminating duplicate entries.

Python sets support operations such as the intersection, union (l), symmetric difference and difference (-). You can create sets using the curly braces or the set function ().

Frozen operators and techniques that give results without altering the functionality of frozen sets are applied and supported by python.

Here are the methods supported by the python set:

Clear () – deleting or removing all set items

Union () – returning or replacing the existing union

Add () – adding items or elements in a set

Intersect () – returning or replacing the intersection

Difference () – answering all the set items with other factors

 Dictionaries

Dictionaries are an essential part of python programming. It stores all the data you need when learning and advancing python. In most cases, indexing by keys can either be mutable or immutable.

They contain value keys that are unique within the same dictionary. Using a pair of braces creates an empty dictionary {}.

The central role of a dictionary is to store value with a key and extracting the value given one. It is easy to delete a key using the value pair with the del function. If you stored the data using an already used key, the prior value of the element forgotten. You will, however, get an error if you try extracting value with a non-existent key.

If you need to sort out your data in the dictionary, you can use the sorted (d) and performing list (d).when creating a new dictionary, d= dict ( ) or d= {}.

A new-key value can be added using the indexing operator. It is important to note that keyword arguments are similar when it comes to dictionaries.

How to create a basic game in python

Creating a basic game in python is not that hard. Using the below steps, you can create a quality game in python that is fun and easy to understand. Who said the python was all about coding? It does not have to be that boring. Let’s consider;

Sample game: Rangers and Badgers Game

Step No 1- hello Ranger

Once you get to run IDLE, it’s time to access the editor window and key in your unique code. Your code should be able to do the following:

  • Import the library
  • Initialize the game
  • Load images effectively
  • Keep the looping through
  • Make way to draw by clearing the screen
  • Start creating images on the screen
  • Refreshing and updating the screen
  • Looping through the events
  • You can then save it in the game folder, let’s say, give it the name game.Px.

The coding section

Coding does not have to be hard. You can consider the steps below to create a beautiful drawing of the;

  • Start by importing the PxGame library. With this, you can handle and work on all the library functions present in your program
  • Name and initialize PxGame and preparing the display window
  • Create and provide images to be used by the ranger
  • Looping over the specified indented code
  • Select the black fill color before making any stretches/drawings
  • Add the existing ranger image on the screen
  • Update and refresh the screen
  • Check and identify any upcoming events and tasks

Step No.2 Adding Scenery

For an effective game, there is a need for a great background. You can do this by adding a background on the screen.blit() calls. You can fairly add the code below section #3 once the player image adds.

Once images are loaded, storage is in different variables ready to be drawn on the screen. There will be a grass image, however not enough; you can consider tiling the entire grass to cover the screen.  Make sure you add a code to game.px if you need to draw the player on the screen at section #6.

Using the ‘for’ statement, you can draw the grass at x and y values while the other line will help you create castles.

Step No. 3 Making the ranger’s move

Create functional keys that will help make the ranger respond. You can identify the gameplay element by setting the screen width and length while adding more codes in section #2.

To keep track of the already pressed key array in the order of WASD, you can begin with the first key as W, followed by A, then A and lastly D. to draw the player effectively, the player post variable works magic. It is also supported by making some drawing adjustments on the already existing code in #6.

Depending on the keys you are going to use, start updating the keys array while adding an event. The key pxGame will significantly help to detect and recognize the critical presses made once you input the next code at section #8. Similarly, you can add a new system to end the game.px, which helps add or remove pressed keys from the y and x players.

Step No. 4

It’s time to create a movement for your ranger. Consider using trigonometry to start rotation on the pyGame surface. You should use the rotate (degrees) function. You can add the codes in section #1 and then section #6.

Implementing the ranger’s position requires you to have the code #6.1.

For the rotation to be successful, there is a need for you to get the mouse and player position and include both in atan2 function It will help you rotate the bunny using the mouse.

Step No. 5

You need to add the required variables in section #2 to make the ranger more active and begin shooting and attacking the enemies by throwing arrows. There is a need to track the accuracy of the player and the effectiveness of the indicators. For loading and firing arrows the moment the mouse is clicked, add another code on section #3.

If you want to generate the speed or accuracy of the arrow rotation or the cursor position when the mouse clicks, adding code on section #8 will pave the way for anew event handler and store the rotation value. For drawing the arrows on the screen, consider adding codes.

The arrows speed should be 10. you will acquire this by calculating the exact value by velx and vely using trigonometry if there are any arrows or bullets out of range, the ‘if’ statement deletes it. You can start enjoying the bunny shooting arrows when you click the mouse.

Step No. 6

Here, there is real action in the shooting. There is a hero player insight, and the castle is visible. You can create enemies who will attack the castle. Badgers who can run to the castle and add more enemies, informing and showing them. Consider adding a code in section #2, which sets up the timer to add new badgers when time elapses. When the badtimer reaches 0, a new badger appears.

By adding a code in section #3, the system sets a duplicate to animate the enemy.

Adding code to section #6.2 then update and show the enemy. The system helps create a badtimer, develops a badger and sets the badtimer. Using the code in section #1, you can build a random library. A law in section #4 decrements the value of badtimer. You are now able to shoot, move attack and shoot.

Step No.7 collision of badger and arrows

Here, the badgers can plot an attack, but the bolts cannot harm them. Consider looping all the enemies inside the loop and ensure they collide. It will help you shoot the badgers and destroy them.

Step No. 8 Adding a HUD with clock and health meter

Head-up Display, also HUD, determines the health status of the castle and the clock estimates the survival time. For any regular game, there needs to be a loser and winner. There is a win/lose rule timer of 90 seconds. Once the castle s destroyed, you are supposed to stop running.

You can add codes ii section #2 for special sound effects or music. Your systems should bring you to the end of the game creation.

Following the steps above will help you create successful games. Python programming is one of the popular computer programming languages due to its vast applications and benefits. Moreover, you do not have to fear to code. It is easy to understand, and it has earned the respect of many organizations

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